BACK TO INDEX BACK TO OTHMAR FREY'S HOMEPAGE

Publications of year 1986

Articles in journal or book chapters

  1. Martti T. Hallikainen, Fawwaz Ulaby, and Mohamed Abdelrazik. Dielectric properties of snow in the 3 to 37 GHz range. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 34(11):1329-1340, November 1986. Keyword(s): Dielectric measurements, Density measurement, Dielectric measurements, Frequency, Predictive models, Scattering, Shape measurement, Size measurement, Snow, Temperature distribution, Volume measurement.
    Abstract: Microwave dielectric measurements of dry and wet snow were made at nine frequencies betweeo 3 and 18 GHz, and at 37 GHz, using two free-space transmission systems. The measurements were conducted during the winters of 1982 and 1983. The following parametric ranges were covered: 1) liquid water content, 0 to 12.3 percent by volume; 2) snow density, 0.09 to 0.42 g cm-3; 3) temperature, 0 to -5 \deg C and -15\deg C (scattering-loss measurements); and 4) crystal size, 0.5 to 1.5 mm. The experimental data indicate that the dielectric behavior of wet snow closely follows the dispersion behavior of water. For dry snow, volume scattering is the dominant loss mechanism at 37 GHz. The applicability of several empirical and theoretical mixing models was evaluated using the experimental data. Both the Debye-like semi-empirical model and the theoretical Polder-Van Santen mixing model were found to describe adequately the dielectric behavior of wet snow. However, the Polder-Van Santen model provided a good fit to the measured values of the real and imaginary parts of wet snow only when the shapes of the water inclusions in snow were assumed to be both nonsymmetrical and dependent upon snow water content. The shape variation predicted by the model is consistent with the variation suggested by the physical mechanisms governing the distribution of liquid water in wet snow.

    @Article{hallikainenUlabyAbdelrazik1986DielectricPropertiesSnow,
    author = {Hallikainen, Martti T. and Ulaby, Fawwaz and Abdelrazik, Mohamed},
    title = {Dielectric properties of snow in the 3 to 37 {GHz} range},
    journal = {IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation},
    year = {1986},
    volume = {34},
    number = {11},
    pages = {1329-1340},
    month = {Nov},
    issn = {0018-926X},
    abstract = {Microwave dielectric measurements of dry and wet snow were made at nine frequencies betweeo 3 and 18 GHz, and at 37 GHz, using two free-space transmission systems. The measurements were conducted during the winters of 1982 and 1983. The following parametric ranges were covered: 1) liquid water content, 0 to 12.3 percent by volume; 2) snow density, 0.09 to 0.42 g cm-3; 3) temperature, 0 to -5 \deg C and -15\deg C (scattering-loss measurements); and 4) crystal size, 0.5 to 1.5 mm. The experimental data indicate that the dielectric behavior of wet snow closely follows the dispersion behavior of water. For dry snow, volume scattering is the dominant loss mechanism at 37 GHz. The applicability of several empirical and theoretical mixing models was evaluated using the experimental data. Both the Debye-like semi-empirical model and the theoretical Polder-Van Santen mixing model were found to describe adequately the dielectric behavior of wet snow. However, the Polder-Van Santen model provided a good fit to the measured values of the real and imaginary parts of wet snow only when the shapes of the water inclusions in snow were assumed to be both nonsymmetrical and dependent upon snow water content. The shape variation predicted by the model is consistent with the variation suggested by the physical mechanisms governing the distribution of liquid water in wet snow.},
    doi = {10.1109/TAP.1986.1143757},
    file = {:hallikainenUlabyAbdelrazik1986DielectricPropertiesSnow.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {Dielectric measurements;Density measurement;Dielectric measurements;Frequency;Predictive models;Scattering;Shape measurement;Size measurement;Snow;Temperature distribution;Volume measurement},
    owner = {ofrey},
    pdf = {../../../docs/hallikainenUlabyAbdelrazik1986DielectricPropertiesSnow.pdf},
    
    }
    


  2. Michael Y. Jin. Optimal Doppler Centroid Estimation for SAR Data from a Quasi-Homogeneous Source. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 24(6):1022-1025, 1986. Keyword(s): SAR Processing, Doppler Centroid, Doppler Centroid Estimation, Clutterlock, Satellite SAR.
    Abstract: In synthetic aperture radar (SAR) signal processing, an accurate Doppler centroid is required for most applications involving target motion estimation and antenna pointing direction estimation. In some cases the Doppler centroid can be sufficiently determined using available information regarding the terrain topography, the relative motion between the sensor and the terrain, and the antenna pointing direction. But most often, a highly accurate Doppler centroid value has to be derived by analyzing the received SAR signal itself. This kind of signal processing is referred to as Doppler centroid estimation (DCE). This correspondence briefly describes two DCE algorithms, provides a performance summary for these algorithms, and presents the experimental results. These algorithms include a previously reported one and a newly developed one that is optimized for quasi-homogeneous sources. The performance enhancement achieved by the optimal DCE algorithm is clearly demonstrated by the experimental results.

    @Article{jin86:DopCentrEst,
    Title = {{Optimal Doppler Centroid Estimation for SAR Data from a Quasi-Homogeneous Source}},
    Author = {Michael Y. Jin},
    Number = {6},
    Pages = {1022-1025},
    Volume = {24},
    Year = {1986},
    Abstract = {In synthetic aperture radar (SAR) signal processing, an accurate Doppler centroid is required for most applications involving target motion estimation and antenna pointing direction estimation. In some cases the Doppler centroid can be sufficiently determined using available information regarding the terrain topography, the relative motion between the sensor and the terrain, and the antenna pointing direction. But most often, a highly accurate Doppler centroid value has to be derived by analyzing the received SAR signal itself. This kind of signal processing is referred to as Doppler centroid estimation (DCE). This correspondence briefly describes two DCE algorithms, provides a performance summary for these algorithms, and presents the experimental results. These algorithms include a previously reported one and a newly developed one that is optimized for quasi-homogeneous sources. The performance enhancement achieved by the optimal DCE algorithm is clearly demonstrated by the experimental results.},
    Journal = {IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing},
    Keywords = {SAR Processing, Doppler Centroid, Doppler Centroid Estimation, Clutterlock, Satellite SAR},
    Pdf = {../../../docs/jin86.pdf} 
    }
    


  3. Ralph O. Schmidt. Multiple emitter location and signal parameter estimation. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 34(3):276-280, March 1986. Keyword(s): MUSIC, Multiple Signal Classification, null Adaptive arrays, DOA estimation, Direction-of-arrival estimation, Parameter estimation, Signal processing antennas.
    Abstract: Processing the signals received on an array of sensors for the location of the emitter is of great enough interest to have been treated under many special case assumptions. The general problem considers sensors with arbitrary locations and arbitrary directional characteristics (gain/phase/polarization) in a noise/interference environment of arbitrary covariance matrix. This report is concerned first with the multiple emitter aspect of this problem and second with the generality of solution. A description is given of the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm, which provides asymptotically unbiased estimates of 1) number of incident wavefronts present; 2) directions of arrival (DOA) (or emitter locations); 3) strengths and cross correlations among the incident waveforms; 4) noise/interference strength. Examples and comparisons with methods based on maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum entropy (ME), as well as conventional beamforming are included. An example of its use as a multiple frequency estimator operating on time series is included.

    @Article{schmidt1986:MUSICOrig,
    author = {Schmidt, Ralph O.},
    journal = {{IEEE} Transactions on Antennas and Propagation},
    title = {Multiple emitter location and signal parameter estimation},
    year = {1986},
    issn = {0018-926X},
    month = {Mar},
    number = {3},
    pages = {276-280},
    volume = {34},
    abstract = {Processing the signals received on an array of sensors for the location of the emitter is of great enough interest to have been treated under many special case assumptions. The general problem considers sensors with arbitrary locations and arbitrary directional characteristics (gain/phase/polarization) in a noise/interference environment of arbitrary covariance matrix. This report is concerned first with the multiple emitter aspect of this problem and second with the generality of solution. A description is given of the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm, which provides asymptotically unbiased estimates of 1) number of incident wavefronts present; 2) directions of arrival (DOA) (or emitter locations); 3) strengths and cross correlations among the incident waveforms; 4) noise/interference strength. Examples and comparisons with methods based on maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum entropy (ME), as well as conventional beamforming are included. An example of its use as a multiple frequency estimator operating on time series is included.},
    keywords = {MUSIC, Multiple Signal Classification, null Adaptive arrays, DOA estimation, Direction-of-arrival estimation, Parameter estimation, Signal processing antennas},
    owner = {ofrey},
    pdf = {../../../docs/schmidt1986.pdf},
    url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1143830&isnumber=25667},
    
    }
    


  4. Alan di Cenzo. A Comparison of Resolution for Spotlight Synthetic-Aperture Radar and Computer-Aided Tomography. Proceedings of the IEEE, 74:1165-1166, August 1986. Keyword(s): SAR Processing, Tomography, Resolution, Comparison of Algorithms, Spotlight SAR.
    Abstract: It is shown that the difference between computer-aided tomographic (CAT) resolution and spotlight synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) resolution for narrow apertures is a consequence of the magnification in Fourier bandwidth induced by the SAR offset carrier frequency. Implications for CAT are discussed.

    @Article{DiCenzo86:Comp,
    Title = {{A Comparison of Resolution for Spotlight Synthetic-Aperture Radar and Computer-Aided Tomography}},
    Author = {Alan di Cenzo},
    Month = Aug,
    Pages = {1165-1166},
    Volume = {74},
    Year = {1986},
    Abstract = {It is shown that the difference between computer-aided tomographic (CAT) resolution and spotlight synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) resolution for narrow apertures is a consequence of the magnification in Fourier bandwidth induced by the SAR offset carrier frequency. Implications for CAT are discussed.},
    Journal = {Proceedings of the IEEE},
    Keywords = {SAR Processing, Tomography, Resolution, Comparison of Algorithms, Spotlight SAR},
    Pdf = {../../../docs/diCenzo86.pdf} 
    }
    


Conference articles

  1. Ian G. Cumming, P. F. Kavanagh, and M. R. Ito. Resolving the Doppler Ambiguity for Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar. In IGARSS '86, International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, volume 3, pages 1639-1643, 1986. Keyword(s): SAR Processing, Doppler Centroid, Doppler Centroid Estimation, Azimuth Look Correlation, Clutterlock, Doppler Ambiguity Resolver, DAR, Doppler Rate Estimation, Autofocus.
    Abstract: In spaceborne SAR systems, the radar beam pointing angle must be known to approximately one half the beamwidth in order to resolve the Doppler centroid ambiguity and provide accurate data processing. This constraint may place a heavy burden on the beam pointing and measurement error budget, unless an alternate means can be provided to estimate the beam pointing angle or Doppler centroid. In this paper, a new method is presented for estimating the Doppler centroid directly from the received radar data, during the image formation process. The algorithm has been programmed into the GSAR processor, and encouraging test results have been obtained.

    @InProceedings{cum86:DopCentrEst,
    Title = {{Resolving the Doppler Ambiguity for Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar}},
    Author = {Ian G. Cumming and P. F. Kavanagh and M. R. Ito},
    Booktitle = {IGARSS '86, International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium},
    Pages = {1639-1643},
    Volume = {3},
    Year = {1986},
    Abstract = {In spaceborne SAR systems, the radar beam pointing angle must be known to approximately one half the beamwidth in order to resolve the Doppler centroid ambiguity and provide accurate data processing. This constraint may place a heavy burden on the beam pointing and measurement error budget, unless an alternate means can be provided to estimate the beam pointing angle or Doppler centroid. In this paper, a new method is presented for estimating the Doppler centroid directly from the received radar data, during the image formation process. The algorithm has been programmed into the GSAR processor, and encouraging test results have been obtained.},
    Keywords = {SAR Processing, Doppler Centroid, Doppler Centroid Estimation, Azimuth Look Correlation, Clutterlock, Doppler Ambiguity Resolver, DAR, Doppler Rate Estimation, Autofocus},
    Pdf = {../../../docs/cumming86.pdf} 
    }
    


BACK TO INDEX BACK TO OTHMAR FREY'S HOMEPAGE


Disclaimer:

Please note that access to full text PDF versions of papers is restricted to the Chair of Earth Observation and Remote Sensing, Institute of Environmental Engineering, ETH Zurich.
Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright.

This collection of SAR literature is far from being complete.
It is rather a collection of papers which I store in my literature data base. Hence, the list of publications under PUBLICATIONS OF AUTHOR'S NAME should NOT be mistaken for a complete bibliography of that author.




Last modified: Mon Feb 1 16:39:00 2021
Author: Othmar Frey, Earth Observation and Remote Sensing, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology - ETH Zurich .


This document was translated from BibTEX by bibtex2html