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Publications of year 1990

Books and proceedings

  1. Merrill I. Skolnik. Radar Handbook (2nd Edition). McGraw-Hill, 1990.
    @Book{skolnik90:RadarHandbook,
    Title = {Radar Handbook (2nd Edition)},
    Author = {Skolnik, Merrill I.},
    Publisher = {McGraw-Hill},
    Year = {1990} 
    }
    


Articles in journal or book chapters

  1. E. Krogager. New decomposition of the radar target scattering matrix. Electronics Letters, 26(18):1525-1527, August 1990. Keyword(s): decomposition, radar target scattering matrix, S-matrix theory, radar theory;.
    Abstract: A decomposition of the complex radar target scattering matrix resolves a 2*2 complex scattering matrix into three components that provide a clearer picture of the physical mechanisms behind the scattering and, thereby, a clearer picture of the target itself.

    @Article{krogager1990,
    author = {Krogager, E.},
    title = {New decomposition of the radar target scattering matrix},
    journal = {Electronics Letters},
    year = {1990},
    volume = {26},
    number = {18},
    pages = {1525-1527},
    month = aug,
    issn = {0013-5194},
    abstract = {A decomposition of the complex radar target scattering matrix resolves a 2*2 complex scattering matrix into three components that provide a clearer picture of the physical mechanisms behind the scattering and, thereby, a clearer picture of the target itself.},
    doi = {10.1049/el:19900979},
    file = {:krogager1990.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {decomposition;radar target scattering matrix;S-matrix theory;radar theory;},
    pdf = {../../../docs/krogager1990.pdf},
    
    }
    


  2. Fuk K. Li and R. M. Goldstein. Studies of Multibaseline Spaceborne Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radars. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 28(1):88-97, January 1990. Keyword(s): SAR Processing, SAR Interferometry, Interferometry, InSAR, Multi-Baseline SAR, SAR Tomography, geophysical techniques, radar applications, radar measurement, radiowave interferometry, remote sensing, topography (Earth)INSAR design, Seasat, baseline separations, geophysical technique, multibaseline spaceborne interferometric synthetic aperture radars, performance, phase measurement error model, remote sensing, signal-to-noise ratios, topography measurement capability.
    Abstract: The authors have utilized a set of Seasat synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data that were obtained in nearly repeat ground-track orbits to demonstrate the performance of spaceborne interferometric SAR (INSAR) systems. An assessment of the topography measurement capability is presented. A phase measurement error model is described and compared with the data obtained at various baseline separations and signal-to-noise ratios. Finally, the implications of these results on future spaceborne INSAR design are discussed

    @Article{liGoldstein1990:MultiBaselineInsAR,
    author = {Li, Fuk K. and Goldstein, R. M.},
    title = {{Studies of Multibaseline Spaceborne Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radars}},
    journal = {IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing},
    year = {1990},
    volume = {28},
    number = {1},
    pages = {88-97},
    month = {Jan},
    issn = {0196-2892},
    abstract = {The authors have utilized a set of Seasat synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data that were obtained in nearly repeat ground-track orbits to demonstrate the performance of spaceborne interferometric SAR (INSAR) systems. An assessment of the topography measurement capability is presented. A phase measurement error model is described and compared with the data obtained at various baseline separations and signal-to-noise ratios. Finally, the implications of these results on future spaceborne INSAR design are discussed},
    doi = {10.1109/36.45749},
    file = {:liGoldstein1990.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {SAR Processing, SAR Interferometry, Interferometry, InSAR, Multi-Baseline SAR, SAR Tomography, geophysical techniques, radar applications, radar measurement, radiowave interferometry, remote sensing, topography (Earth)INSAR design, Seasat, baseline separations, geophysical technique, multibaseline spaceborne interferometric synthetic aperture radars, performance, phase measurement error model, remote sensing, signal-to-noise ratios, topography measurement capability},
    owner = {ofrey},
    pdf = {../../../docs/liGoldstein1990.pdf},
    url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=45749&isnumber=1726},
    
    }
    


  3. Joćo Moreira. A New Method Of Aircraft Motion Error Extraction From Radar Raw Data For Real Time Motion Compensation. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 28(4):620-626, July 1990. Keyword(s): SAR Processing, Autofocus, Motion Compensation, MoComp, Residual Motion Errors, Airborne SAR, ESAR.
    Abstract: Presented is a new solution for real-time motion compensation. The main idea is to extract all the necessary motions of the aircraft from the radar backscatter signal using a new radar configuration and new methods for evaluating the azimuth spectra of the radar signal. Hence an inertial navigation system becomes unnecessary for many applications. The motion compensation parameters for realtime motion error correction are the range delay, the range dependent phaseshift, and the pulse repetition frequency. The motions of the aircraft to be extracted are the displacement in line-of-sight (LOS) direction, the aircraft\u2019s yaw and drift angle, and the forward velocity. Results show that a three-look image with an azimuth resolution of 3 m in L-band using a small aircraft is achievable, and the implementation of this method in real time using an array processor is feasible.

    @Article{moreiraJoao1990:MoComp,
    Title = {A New Method Of Aircraft Motion Error Extraction From Radar Raw Data For Real Time Motion Compensation},
    Author = {Moreira, Jo{\~a}o},
    Doi = {10.1109/TGRS.1990.572967},
    ISSN = {0196-2892},
    Month = {jul},
    Number = {4},
    Pages = {620--626},
    Url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=572967&isnumber=2143},
    Volume = {28},
    Year = {1990},
    Abstract = {Presented is a new solution for real-time motion compensation. The main idea is to extract all the necessary motions of the aircraft from the radar backscatter signal using a new radar configuration and new methods for evaluating the azimuth spectra of the radar signal. Hence an inertial navigation system becomes unnecessary for many applications. The motion compensation parameters for realtime motion error correction are the range delay, the range dependent phaseshift, and the pulse repetition frequency. The motions of the aircraft to be extracted are the displacement in line-of-sight (LOS) direction, the aircraft\u2019s yaw and drift angle, and the forward velocity. Results show that a three-look image with an azimuth resolution of 3 m in L-band using a small aircraft is achievable, and the implementation of this method in real time using an array processor is feasible.},
    Journal = {IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing},
    Keywords = {SAR Processing, Autofocus, Motion Compensation, MoComp, Residual Motion Errors, Airborne SAR, ESAR},
    Owner = {ofrey},
    Pdf = {../../../docs/moreiraJoao1990.pdf} 
    }
    


  4. Claudio Prati, Fabio Rocca, Andrea Monti-Guarnieri, and Elvio Damonti. Seismic Migration For Sar Focusing: Interferometrical Applications. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 28(4):627-640, July 1990. Keyword(s): SAR Processing, Wavenumber Domain Algorithm, omega-k, Range Migration Algorithm, Interferometry.
    Abstract: Conventional techniques for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image focusing use the matched filter concept and convolve the data with a reference phase signal which changes with range. The resulting algorithm is space-variant and its frequency-domain implementation is cumbersome. SAR data, however, can be focused using migration techniques identical to those used in seismic signal processing for oil prospecting. The implications of the higher precision achieved with migration as regards the phases of the synthesized radar returns is discussed. Two interferometrical applications where the phases of the returns are essential for the recovery of interesting parameters of the observed scene are presented: the determination from a satellite of the altitude map of the terrain and the determination from an airplane of the attitude of the sensor. In both cases the precision achieved is satisfactory.

    @Article{pratiRoccaMontiDamonti90:Migration,
    Title = {{Seismic Migration For Sar Focusing: Interferometrical Applications}},
    Author = {Claudio Prati and Fabio Rocca and Andrea Monti-Guarnieri and Elvio Damonti},
    Month = Jul,
    Number = {4},
    Pages = {627-640},
    Url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel1/36/2143/00572968.pdf},
    Volume = {28},
    Year = {1990},
    Abstract = {Conventional techniques for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image focusing use the matched filter concept and convolve the data with a reference phase signal which changes with range. The resulting algorithm is space-variant and its frequency-domain implementation is cumbersome. SAR data, however, can be focused using migration techniques identical to those used in seismic signal processing for oil prospecting. The implications of the higher precision achieved with migration as regards the phases of the synthesized radar returns is discussed. Two interferometrical applications where the phases of the returns are essential for the recovery of interesting parameters of the observed scene are presented: the determination from a satellite of the altitude map of the terrain and the determination from an airplane of the attitude of the sensor. In both cases the precision achieved is satisfactory.},
    Journal = {IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing},
    Keywords = {SAR Processing, Wavenumber Domain Algorithm, omega-k, Range Migration Algorithm, Interferometry},
    Pdf = {../../../docs/pratiRoccaMontiDamonti90.pdf} 
    }
    


  5. Kamal Sarabandi and Fawwaz T. Ulaby. A convenient technique for polarimetric calibration of single-antenna radar systems. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 28(6):1022-1033, November 1990. Keyword(s): Polarimetric Calibration, calibration, polarimetry, radar antennas, radar systems, X-band radar, channel imbalances, conducting sphere, crosscoupling, crosspolarization channels, crosstalk factors, effective polarization isolation, error, four-port passive network, metal sphere, polarimetric calibration, single-antenna radar systems, technique, trihedral corner reflector, Antenna measurements, Backscatter, Calibration, Crosstalk, Passive networks, Polarization, Radar antennas, Radar polarimetry, Receiving antennas, Transmitting antennas.
    Abstract: A practical technique for calibrating single-antenna polarimetric radar systems is introduced. This technique requires only a single calibration target such as a conducting sphere or a trihedral corner reflector to calibrate the radar system, both in amplitude and phase, for all linear polarization configurations. By using a metal sphere, which is orientation independent, error in calibration measurement is minimized while simultaneously calibrating the crosspolarization channels. The antenna system and two orthogonal channels (in free space) are modeled as a four-port passive network. Upon using the reciprocity relations for the passive network and assuming the crosscoupling terms of the antenna to be equal, the crosstalk factors of the antenna system and the transmit and receive channel imbalances can be obtained from measurement of the backscatter from a metal sphere. For an X-band radar system with cross polarization isolation of 25 dB, comparison of values measured for a sphere and a cylinder with theoretical values shows agreement within 0.4 dB in magnitude and 5 deg in phase. An effective polarization isolation of 50 dB is achieved using this calibration technique

    @Article{sarabandiUlabyTGRS1990PolarimetricCalibration,
    author = {Kamal Sarabandi and Fawwaz T. Ulaby},
    title = {A convenient technique for polarimetric calibration of single-antenna radar systems},
    journal = {IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing},
    year = {1990},
    volume = {28},
    number = {6},
    pages = {1022-1033},
    month = nov,
    issn = {0196-2892},
    abstract = {A practical technique for calibrating single-antenna polarimetric radar systems is introduced. This technique requires only a single calibration target such as a conducting sphere or a trihedral corner reflector to calibrate the radar system, both in amplitude and phase, for all linear polarization configurations. By using a metal sphere, which is orientation independent, error in calibration measurement is minimized while simultaneously calibrating the crosspolarization channels. The antenna system and two orthogonal channels (in free space) are modeled as a four-port passive network. Upon using the reciprocity relations for the passive network and assuming the crosscoupling terms of the antenna to be equal, the crosstalk factors of the antenna system and the transmit and receive channel imbalances can be obtained from measurement of the backscatter from a metal sphere. For an X-band radar system with cross polarization isolation of 25 dB, comparison of values measured for a sphere and a cylinder with theoretical values shows agreement within 0.4 dB in magnitude and 5 deg in phase. An effective polarization isolation of 50 dB is achieved using this calibration technique},
    doi = {10.1109/36.62627},
    file = {:sarabandiUlabyTGRS1990PolarimetricCalibration.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {Polarimetric Calibration, calibration;polarimetry;radar antennas;radar systems;X-band radar;channel imbalances;conducting sphere;crosscoupling;crosspolarization channels;crosstalk factors;effective polarization isolation;error;four-port passive network;metal sphere;polarimetric calibration;single-antenna radar systems;technique;trihedral corner reflector;Antenna measurements;Backscatter;Calibration;Crosstalk;Passive networks;Polarization;Radar antennas;Radar polarimetry;Receiving antennas;Transmitting antennas},
    owner = {ofrey},
    pdf = {../../../docs/sarabandiUlabyTGRS1990PolarimetricCalibration.pdf},
    
    }
    


  6. Kamal Sarabandi, Fawwaz T. Ulaby, and M. Ali Tassoudji. Calibration of Polarimetric Radar Systems With Good Polarization Isolation. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 28(1):70-75, January 1990. Keyword(s): SAR Processing, polarimetric calibration, polarimetry, calibration, electromagnetic wave polarisation, radar measurement, radar systems, remote sensing, remote sensing, calibration, polarization isolation, single-antenna polarimetric radar systems, metal sphere, cross-polarized radar cross section, radar transfer function, scattering matrix, tilted cylinder, X-band, radar overall cross-polarization isolation, alignment, Calibration, Radar polarimetry, Polarization, Radar scattering, Particle scattering, Radar cross section, Radar antennas, Phase measurement, Radar measurements, Laboratories.
    Abstract: A practical technique is proposed for calibrating single-antenna polarimetric radar systems using a metal sphere plus any second target with a strong cross-polarized radar cross section. This technique assumes perfect isolation between antenna ports. It is shown that all magnitudes and phases (relative to one of the like-polarized linear polarization configurations) of the radar transfer function can be calibrated without knowledge of the scattering matrix of the second target. Comparison of the values measured (using this calibration technique) for a tilted cylinder in the X-band with theoretical values shows agreement within +or-0.3 dB in magnitude and +or-5 degrees in phase. The radar overall cross-polarization isolation was 25 dB. The technique is particularly useful for calibrating a radar under field conditions, because it does not require the careful alignment of calibration targets.<>

    @Article{sarabandiUlabyTassoudjiTGRS1990PolarimetricCalibrationForSystemsWithGoodPolIsolation,
    author = {Sarabandi, Kamal and Ulaby, Fawwaz T. and Tassoudji, M. Ali},
    title = {Calibration of Polarimetric Radar Systems With Good Polarization Isolation},
    journal = {IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.},
    year = {1990},
    volume = {28},
    number = {1},
    pages = {70-75},
    month = {Jan},
    issn = {0196-2892},
    abstract = {A practical technique is proposed for calibrating single-antenna polarimetric radar systems using a metal sphere plus any second target with a strong cross-polarized radar cross section. This technique assumes perfect isolation between antenna ports. It is shown that all magnitudes and phases (relative to one of the like-polarized linear polarization configurations) of the radar transfer function can be calibrated without knowledge of the scattering matrix of the second target. Comparison of the values measured (using this calibration technique) for a tilted cylinder in the X-band with theoretical values shows agreement within +or-0.3 dB in magnitude and +or-5 degrees in phase. The radar overall cross-polarization isolation was 25 dB. The technique is particularly useful for calibrating a radar under field conditions, because it does not require the careful alignment of calibration targets.<>},
    doi = {10.1109/36.45747},
    file = {:sarabandiUlabyTassoudjiTGRS1990PolarimetricCalibrationForSystemsWithGoodPolIsolation.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {SAR Processing, polarimetric calibration, polarimetry,calibration;electromagnetic wave polarisation;radar measurement;radar systems;remote sensing;remote sensing;calibration;polarization isolation;single-antenna polarimetric radar systems;metal sphere;cross-polarized radar cross section;radar transfer function;scattering matrix;tilted cylinder;X-band;radar overall cross-polarization isolation;alignment;Calibration;Radar polarimetry;Polarization;Radar scattering;Particle scattering;Radar cross section;Radar antennas;Phase measurement;Radar measurements;Laboratories},
    owner = {ofrey},
    
    }
    


  7. Petre Stoica and A. Nehorai. MUSIC, maximum likelihood, and Cramer-Rao bound: further results and comparisons. IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, 38(12):2140-2150, December 1990. Keyword(s): SAR Processing, MUSIC, SAR Tomography, parameter estimation, signal detection, signal processing, statistical analysisCramer-Rao bound, covariance matrix, direction-of-arrival, maximum likelihood estimator, multiple signal characterization, narrowband plane waves, noisy measurements, parameter estimation, performance comparisons, statistical performance, superimposed signals, uniform linear sensor arrays, unweighted MUSIC estimator, weighted MUSIC estimators.
    Abstract: The problem of determining the direction-of-arrival of narrowband plane waves using sensor arrays and the related problem of estimating the parameters of superimposed signals from noisy measurements are studied. A number of results have been recently presented by the authors on the statistical performance of the multiple signal characterization (MUSIC) and the maximum likelihood (ML) estimators for the above problems. This work extends those results in several directions. First, it establishes that in the class of weighted MUSIC estimators, the unweighted MUSIC achieves the best performance (i.e. the minimum variance of estimation errors), in large samples. Next, it derives the covariance matrix of the ML estimator and presents detailed analytic studies of the statistical efficiency of MUSIC and ML estimators. These studies include performance comparisons of MUSIC and MLE with each other, as well as with the ultimate performance corresponding to the Cramer-Rao bound. Finally, some numerical examples are given which provide a more quantitative study of performance for the problem of finding two directions with uniform linear sensor arrays

    @Article{stoicaNehorai1990:MUSIC,
    Title = {{MUSIC}, maximum likelihood, and Cramer-Rao bound: further results and comparisons},
    Author = {Stoica, Petre and Nehorai, A.},
    Doi = {10.1109/29.61541},
    ISSN = {0096-3518},
    Month = {Dec},
    Number = {12},
    Pages = {2140-2150},
    Url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=61541&isnumber=2238},
    Volume = {38},
    Year = {1990},
    Abstract = {The problem of determining the direction-of-arrival of narrowband plane waves using sensor arrays and the related problem of estimating the parameters of superimposed signals from noisy measurements are studied. A number of results have been recently presented by the authors on the statistical performance of the multiple signal characterization (MUSIC) and the maximum likelihood (ML) estimators for the above problems. This work extends those results in several directions. First, it establishes that in the class of weighted MUSIC estimators, the unweighted MUSIC achieves the best performance (i.e. the minimum variance of estimation errors), in large samples. Next, it derives the covariance matrix of the ML estimator and presents detailed analytic studies of the statistical efficiency of MUSIC and ML estimators. These studies include performance comparisons of MUSIC and MLE with each other, as well as with the ultimate performance corresponding to the Cramer-Rao bound. Finally, some numerical examples are given which provide a more quantitative study of performance for the problem of finding two directions with uniform linear sensor arrays},
    Journal = {IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing},
    Keywords = {SAR Processing, MUSIC, SAR Tomography, parameter estimation, signal detection, signal processing, statistical analysisCramer-Rao bound, covariance matrix, direction-of-arrival, maximum likelihood estimator, multiple signal characterization, narrowband plane waves, noisy measurements, parameter estimation, performance comparisons, statistical performance, superimposed signals, uniform linear sensor arrays, unweighted MUSIC estimator, weighted MUSIC estimators},
    Owner = {ofrey},
    Pdf = {../../../docs/stoicaNehorai1990.pdf} 
    }
    


  8. M. W. Whitt and F. T. Ulaby. A polarimetric radar calibration technique with insensitivity to target orientation. Radio Science, 25(6):1137-1143, 1990. Keyword(s): Polarimetric Calibration, Measurement and standards, Electromagnetics: Instrumentation and techniques, Techniques applicable in three or more fields.
    Abstract: A convenient polarimetric radar calibration technique is presented and used to calibrate an X band polarimetric radar. The technique uses a distortion matrix model for the errors introduced by the transmitter and receiver, and it is applicable to any polarimetric radar system where the concept of an invariant distortion matrix is valid. A sphere and two arbitrary passive targets are used to calibrate the radar with respect to the unknown polarization transmitted when the v-polarized channel is energized. The unknown transmitted polarization is then recovered by measuring any nondepolarizing target. Because knowledge of the scattering matrices for the two arbitrary targets is not required, the technique is insensitive to errors in the orientation of calibration targets. Experimental results are presented, and they indicate magnitude and relative phase measurement errors of less than 0.2 dB and 2 deg, respectively.

    @Article{whittUlabyRadioScience1990PolarimetricCalibration,
    author = {Whitt, M. W. and Ulaby, F. T.},
    title = {A polarimetric radar calibration technique with insensitivity to target orientation},
    journal = {Radio Science},
    year = {1990},
    volume = {25},
    number = {6},
    pages = {1137--1143},
    issn = {1944-799X},
    abstract = {A convenient polarimetric radar calibration technique is presented and used to calibrate an X band polarimetric radar. The technique uses a distortion matrix model for the errors introduced by the transmitter and receiver, and it is applicable to any polarimetric radar system where the concept of an invariant distortion matrix is valid. A sphere and two arbitrary passive targets are used to calibrate the radar with respect to the unknown polarization transmitted when the v-polarized channel is energized. The unknown transmitted polarization is then recovered by measuring any nondepolarizing target. Because knowledge of the scattering matrices for the two arbitrary targets is not required, the technique is insensitive to errors in the orientation of calibration targets. Experimental results are presented, and they indicate magnitude and relative phase measurement errors of less than 0.2 dB and 2 deg, respectively.},
    doi = {10.1029/RS025i006p01137},
    file = {:whittUlabyRadioScience1990PolarimetricCalibration.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {Polarimetric Calibration, Measurement and standards, Electromagnetics: Instrumentation and techniques, Techniques applicable in three or more fields},
    owner = {ofrey},
    pdf = {../../../docs/whittUlabyRadioScience1990PolarimetricCalibration.pdf},
    url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/RS025i006p01137},
    
    }
    


  9. Jakob J. van Zyl. Calibration of polarimetric radar images using only image parameters and trihedral corner reflector responses. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 28(3):337-348, May 1990. Keyword(s): SAR Processing, Polarimetry, Polarimetric Calibration, calibration, polarimetry, radar measurement, remote sensing, C-band, L-band, Stokes matrix, absolute amplitude, calibration, compressed data, image parameters, natural targets, polarimetric radar images, radar return, receive matrices, relative amplitude, relative phase, remote sensing, scattering matrix, system crosstalk, terrain, transmit matrix, trihedral corner reflector responses, Calibration, Crosstalk, Frequency estimation, Image coding, Parameter estimation, Pixel, Radar imaging, Radar polarimetry, Radar scattering, Transmitters.
    Abstract: A technique that uses the radar return from natural targets and at least one trihedral corner reflector to calibrate compressed polarimetric radar data is described. Calibration for relative amplitude, relative phase, absolute amplitude, and system crosstalk is addressed. The crosstalk calibration method is based on the theoretical result that for natural targets with azimuthal symmetry the copolarized and crosspolarized components of the scattering matrix are uncorrelated, and the method does not require any external calibration targets to be deployed before imaging. Because compressed data are used, one is forced to model the transmitting and receiving systems as reciprocal. Even though the inferred transmit and receive matrices are not each simply related to the physical transmitter and receiver, the true Stokes matrix for each pixel in an image can be accurately determined by this approach. The method is illustrated by estimating the crosstalk parameters of the NASA/JPL aircraft for different types of terrain and for two frequencies. For the C-band system, the crosstalk is less than -20 dB for all ranges in the images. The crosstalk of the L-band system is a function of range, however, and may be as poor as -10 dB in the near range, leading to a noticeable distortion of the polarization signatures

    @Article{vanZylTGRS1990PolCalibration,
    author = {van Zyl, Jakob J.},
    title = {Calibration of polarimetric radar images using only image parameters and trihedral corner reflector responses},
    journal = {IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.},
    year = {1990},
    volume = {28},
    number = {3},
    pages = {337-348},
    month = may,
    issn = {0196-2892},
    abstract = {A technique that uses the radar return from natural targets and at least one trihedral corner reflector to calibrate compressed polarimetric radar data is described. Calibration for relative amplitude, relative phase, absolute amplitude, and system crosstalk is addressed. The crosstalk calibration method is based on the theoretical result that for natural targets with azimuthal symmetry the copolarized and crosspolarized components of the scattering matrix are uncorrelated, and the method does not require any external calibration targets to be deployed before imaging. Because compressed data are used, one is forced to model the transmitting and receiving systems as reciprocal. Even though the inferred transmit and receive matrices are not each simply related to the physical transmitter and receiver, the true Stokes matrix for each pixel in an image can be accurately determined by this approach. The method is illustrated by estimating the crosstalk parameters of the NASA/JPL aircraft for different types of terrain and for two frequencies. For the C-band system, the crosstalk is less than -20 dB for all ranges in the images. The crosstalk of the L-band system is a function of range, however, and may be as poor as -10 dB in the near range, leading to a noticeable distortion of the polarization signatures},
    doi = {10.1109/36.54360},
    file = {:vanZylTGRS1990PolCalibration.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {SAR Processing, Polarimetry, Polarimetric Calibration; calibration;polarimetry;radar measurement;remote sensing;C-band;L-band;Stokes matrix;absolute amplitude;calibration;compressed data;image parameters;natural targets;polarimetric radar images;radar return;receive matrices;relative amplitude;relative phase;remote sensing;scattering matrix;system crosstalk;terrain;transmit matrix;trihedral corner reflector responses;Calibration;Crosstalk;Frequency estimation;Image coding;Parameter estimation;Pixel;Radar imaging;Radar polarimetry;Radar scattering;Transmitters},
    pdf = {../../../docs/vanZylTGRS1990PolCalibration.pdf},
    
    }
    


Conference articles

  1. Terry M. Calloway, Paul H. Eichel, and Charles V. Jakowatz. Iterative registration of SAR imagery. In Andrew G. Tescher, editor, , volume 1349, pages 412-420, 1990. SPIE. Keyword(s): SAR Processing, Image Registration, Basic Geocoding, Iterative Image Registration.
    @Conference{callowayEichelJakowatzIterativeRegistration1990,
    author = {Terry M. Calloway and Paul H. Eichel and Charles V. Jakowatz, Jr.},
    title = {Iterative registration of SAR imagery},
    year = {1990},
    editor = {Andrew G. Tescher},
    volume = {1349},
    number = {1},
    pages = {412-420},
    publisher = {SPIE},
    doi = {10.1117/12.23557},
    file = {:callowayEichelJakowatzIterativeRegistration1990.pdf:PDF},
    journal = {Applications of Digital Image Processing XIII},
    keywords = {SAR Processing, Image Registration, Basic Geocoding, Iterative Image Registration},
    location = {San Diego, CA, USA},
    owner = {ofrey},
    pdf = {../../../docs/callowayEichelJakowatzIterativeRegistration1990.pdf},
    url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?PSI/1349/412/1},
    
    }
    


  2. Daniel E. Wahl, Paul H. Eichel, and Charles V. Jakowatz. Implementation of the phase-gradient algorithm. In Franklin T. Luk, editor, , volume 1348, pages 528-535, 1990. SPIE. Keyword(s): SAR Processing, Autofocus, Phase Gradient Algorithm, PGA.
    @Conference{wahlEichelJakowatzPGAImplementation1990,
    author = {Daniel E. Wahl and Paul H. Eichel and Charles V. Jakowatz, Jr.},
    title = {Implementation of the phase-gradient algorithm},
    year = {1990},
    editor = {Franklin T. Luk},
    volume = {1348},
    number = {1},
    pages = {528-535},
    publisher = {SPIE},
    doi = {10.1117/12.23506},
    file = {:wahlEichelJakowatzPGAImplementation1990.pdf:PDF},
    journal = {Advanced Signal Processing Algorithms, Architectures, and Implementations},
    keywords = {SAR Processing, Autofocus, Phase Gradient Algorithm, PGA},
    location = {San Diego, CA, USA},
    owner = {ofrey},
    pdf = {../../../docs/wahlEichelJakowatzPGAImplementation1990.pdf},
    url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?PSI/1348/528/1},
    
    }
    


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Last modified: Mon Feb 1 16:39:00 2021
Author: Othmar Frey, Earth Observation and Remote Sensing, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology - ETH Zurich .


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