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Publications of year 1993

Books and proceedings

  1. Albrecht Ludloff. Handbuch Radar und Radarsignalverarbeitung. Vieweg+Teubner Verlag, Wiesbaden, 1993.
    Abstract: Den Anstoss zu diesem Buch gab der in der Industriepraxis beobachtete Mangel an solcher Radar-Literatur, die den Systemplaner, den Entwicklungsingenieur und den interessierten Anwender theoretisch ausreichend tief, aber zugleich praxisorientiert mit der Radarsignalverarbeitung und dem Entwurf des Sendesignals, dem sogenannten "Waveform Design", vertraut macht. Denn diese bestimmen wesentlich die "Intelligenz" des Radars, das heißt seine Fähigeit, einerseits gesuchte Zielobjekte zu entdecken und zu vermessen und andererseits Falschmeldungen durch andere Objekte zu vermeiden. Die Radarsignalverarbeitung ist -begünstigt durch die rasante Entwicklung der Mikro-Elektronik und hier besonders der Speicher und der sehr schnellen Rechenwerke - immer komplexer und damit leistungsfähiger geworden. Eine Grenze ist nicht abzusehen. Allerdings finden sich die Beschreibungen neuerer Verfahren oder Algorithmen der Radarsignalverarbeitung oft nur verstreut in Publikationen der Fachzeitschriften und in Tagungsberichten. Auch hat sich der Aufgabenbereich des auf diesem Gebiet tätigen Entwicklungsingenieurs erweitert. Er ist erstens stärker als früher am Waveform Design beteiligt. Zweitens muss er neben seiner Hauptaufgabe, der Entwicklung von Hardware und Software für die Subsysteme, in steigendem Masse Monte-Carlo-Simulationen zum Entwurf und zur Optimierung von Signalverarbeitungsalgorithmen und zur Ermittlung von Performance-Parametern einsetzen. Alle diese Tätigkeiten erfordern eine theoretisch gut fundierte Kenntnis sowohl der Grundlagen als auch der praktischen Verfahren der Radarsignalverarbeitung. Hier eine gewisse Lücke zu füllen, ist Sinn des vorliegenden Buches.

    @Book{bookLudloff1993HandbuchRadarUndRadarsignalverarbeitung,
    author = {Ludloff, Albrecht},
    publisher = {Vieweg+Teubner Verlag},
    title = {Handbuch Radar und Radarsignalverarbeitung},
    year = {1993},
    address = {Wiesbaden},
    isbn = {978-3-322-96329-1},
    abstract = {Den Anstoss zu diesem Buch gab der in der Industriepraxis beobachtete Mangel an solcher Radar-Literatur, die den Systemplaner, den Entwicklungsingenieur und den interessierten Anwender theoretisch ausreichend tief, aber zugleich praxisorientiert mit der Radarsignalverarbeitung und dem Entwurf des Sendesignals, dem sogenannten "Waveform Design", vertraut macht. Denn diese bestimmen wesentlich die "Intelligenz" des Radars, das heißt seine Fähigeit, einerseits gesuchte Zielobjekte zu entdecken und zu vermessen und andererseits Falschmeldungen durch andere Objekte zu vermeiden. Die Radarsignalverarbeitung ist -begünstigt durch die rasante Entwicklung der Mikro-Elektronik und hier besonders der Speicher und der sehr schnellen Rechenwerke - immer komplexer und damit leistungsfähiger geworden. Eine Grenze ist nicht abzusehen. Allerdings finden sich die Beschreibungen neuerer Verfahren oder Algorithmen der Radarsignalverarbeitung oft nur verstreut in Publikationen der Fachzeitschriften und in Tagungsberichten. Auch hat sich der Aufgabenbereich des auf diesem Gebiet tätigen Entwicklungsingenieurs erweitert. Er ist erstens stärker als früher am Waveform Design beteiligt. Zweitens muss er neben seiner Hauptaufgabe, der Entwicklung von Hardware und Software für die Subsysteme, in steigendem Masse Monte-Carlo-Simulationen zum Entwurf und zur Optimierung von Signalverarbeitungsalgorithmen und zur Ermittlung von Performance-Parametern einsetzen. Alle diese Tätigkeiten erfordern eine theoretisch gut fundierte Kenntnis sowohl der Grundlagen als auch der praktischen Verfahren der Radarsignalverarbeitung. Hier eine gewisse Lücke zu füllen, ist Sinn des vorliegenden Buches.},
    doi = {10.1007/978-3-322-96329-1_7},
    file = {:bookLudloff1993HandbuchRadarUndRadarsignalverarbeitung.pdf:PDF},
    owner = {ofrey},
    
    }
    


  2. Gunter Schreier, editor. SAR Geocoding: Data and Systems. Wichmann, 1993. Keyword(s): SAR Processing, SAR Geocoding, Geocoding, Doppler Centroid Estimation.
    Abstract: This book gives an overview of the principles of SAR processing, geometric effects of SAR and parametric geocoding of SAR, both ellipsoid and terrain corrected. The new geocoded data sets and the systems and ancillary information to generate these data are described in detail. Basic applications and analysis procedures with the data are described in order to help to understand the content of the geocoded SAR images. Several authors from the German Processing and Archiving Facility (D-PAF) of DLR in Oberpfaffenhofen and other research groups, who actively contributed to algorithms and system aspects of SAR geocoding, contributed chapters of this reference book. An overview of current on-going activities in Europe in this domain concludes the chapters. This volume is intended to introduce new SAR data users as well as those starting with SAR data and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to the principles of SAR data geocoding and to give experts a detailed overview of used references and algorithms.

    @Book{schreier93:SARgeocoding,
    Title = {{SAR Geocoding: Data and Systems}},
    Editor = {Gunter Schreier},
    Publisher = {Wichmann},
    Year = {1993},
    Abstract = {This book gives an overview of the principles of SAR processing, geometric effects of SAR and parametric geocoding of SAR, both ellipsoid and terrain corrected. The new geocoded data sets and the systems and ancillary information to generate these data are described in detail. Basic applications and analysis procedures with the data are described in order to help to understand the content of the geocoded SAR images. Several authors from the German Processing and Archiving Facility (D-PAF) of DLR in Oberpfaffenhofen and other research groups, who actively contributed to algorithms and system aspects of SAR geocoding, contributed chapters of this reference book. An overview of current on-going activities in Europe in this domain concludes the chapters. This volume is intended to introduce new SAR data users as well as those starting with SAR data and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to the principles of SAR data geocoding and to give experts a detailed overview of used references and algorithms.},
    Comment = {Appendix 3.9.1 about Method of Stationary Phase, p. 96},
    Keywords = {SAR Processing, SAR Geocoding, Geocoding, Doppler Centroid Estimation} 
    }
    


Articles in journal or book chapters

  1. S. El Assad, I. Lakkis, and J. Saillard. Holographic SAR image formation by coherent summation of impulse response derivatives. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 41(5):620-624, May 1993. Keyword(s): SAR Processing, SAR Tomography, Tomography, Peugeot 504 automobile, SAR, back-projected range responses, coherent summation, complex impulse responses, hologram, holographic image formation, impulse response derivatives, linear synthetic-aperture radar, monostatic backscattered field, near-field, physical optics approximation, radar image, target image, tomographic reconstruction, two-dimensional Fourier transform, wheat field, image reconstruction, microwave holography, physical optics, radar theory, synthetic aperture radar;.
    Abstract: Using the physical optics approximation, the radar image of a target can be constructed from a knowledge of the monostatic backscattered field or hologram for all frequencies and all aspects angles. The target image is the two-dimensional Fourier transform of the hologram. This is based on the same principle as conventional holography. In the near-field the image is computed by the coherent summation of back-projected range responses which are derived from complex impulse responses. Consequently, the image can be interpreted as a tomographic reconstruction. If the target is within the antenna beam at each radar position in the linear synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) geometry, then the algorithm for the coherent summation of impulse response derivatives (IRDs) can be applied. Experimental results for the near-field of a wheat field and a Peugeot 504 automobile are presented to verify the effectiveness of the method

    @Article{222281,
    Title = {Holographic {SAR} image formation by coherent summation of impulse response derivatives},
    Author = {El Assad, S. and Lakkis, I. and Saillard, J.},
    Doi = {10.1109/8.222281},
    ISSN = {0018-926X},
    Month = may,
    Number = {5},
    Pages = {620-624},
    Volume = {41},
    Year = {1993},
    Abstract = {Using the physical optics approximation, the radar image of a target can be constructed from a knowledge of the monostatic backscattered field or hologram for all frequencies and all aspects angles. The target image is the two-dimensional Fourier transform of the hologram. This is based on the same principle as conventional holography. In the near-field the image is computed by the coherent summation of back-projected range responses which are derived from complex impulse responses. Consequently, the image can be interpreted as a tomographic reconstruction. If the target is within the antenna beam at each radar position in the linear synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) geometry, then the algorithm for the coherent summation of impulse response derivatives (IRDs) can be applied. Experimental results for the near-field of a wheat field and a Peugeot 504 automobile are presented to verify the effectiveness of the method},
    Journal = {IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation},
    Keywords = {SAR Processing, SAR Tomography, Tomography, Peugeot 504 automobile;SAR;back-projected range responses;coherent summation;complex impulse responses;hologram;holographic image formation;impulse response derivatives;linear synthetic-aperture radar;monostatic backscattered field;near-field;physical optics approximation;radar image;target image;tomographic reconstruction;two-dimensional Fourier transform;wheat field;image reconstruction;microwave holography;physical optics;radar theory;synthetic aperture radar;} 
    }
    


  2. Richard M. Goldstein, Hermann Engelhardt, Barclay Kamb, and Richard M. Frolich. Satellite Radar Interferometry for Monitoring Ice Sheet Motion: Application to an Antarctic Ice Stream. Science, 262(5139):1525-1530, 1993. Keyword(s): SAR Processing, Interferometry, SAR interferometry, differential SAR interferometry, DInSAR, Displacement, Surface Displacement, glaciology, hydrological techniques, radar applications, radar imaging, remote sensing by radar, spaceborne radar, synthetic aperture radar, Greenland, SAR method, flow, geophysical measurement technique, glaciology, hydrology, ice sheet motion.
    Abstract: Satellite radar interferometry (SRI) provides a sensitive means of monitoring the flow velocities and grounding-line positions of ice streams, which are indicators of response of the ice sheets to climatic change or internal instability. The detection limit is about 1.5 millimeters for vertical motions and about 4 millimeters for horizontal motions in the radar beam direction. The grounding line, detected by tidal motions where the ice goes afloat, can be mapped at a resolution of ~0.5 kilometer. The SRI velocities and grounding line of the Rutford Ice Stream, Antarctica, agree fairly well with earlier ground-based data. The combined use of SRI and other satellite methods is expected to provide data that will enhance the understanding of ice stream mechanics and help make possible the prediction of ice sheet behavior.

    @Article{goldsteinEngelhardtKambFrolichScience1993DInSARIceSheetMonitoring,
    author = {Goldstein, Richard M. and Engelhardt, Hermann and Kamb, Barclay and Frolich, Richard M.},
    title = {Satellite Radar Interferometry for Monitoring Ice Sheet Motion: Application to an Antarctic Ice Stream},
    journal = {Science},
    year = {1993},
    volume = {262},
    number = {5139},
    pages = {1525-1530},
    abstract = {Satellite radar interferometry (SRI) provides a sensitive means of monitoring the flow velocities and grounding-line positions of ice streams, which are indicators of response of the ice sheets to climatic change or internal instability. The detection limit is about 1.5 millimeters for vertical motions and about 4 millimeters for horizontal motions in the radar beam direction. The grounding line, detected by tidal motions where the ice goes afloat, can be mapped at a resolution of ~0.5 kilometer. The SRI velocities and grounding line of the Rutford Ice Stream, Antarctica, agree fairly well with earlier ground-based data. The combined use of SRI and other satellite methods is expected to provide data that will enhance the understanding of ice stream mechanics and help make possible the prediction of ice sheet behavior.},
    doi = {10.1126/science.262.5139.1525},
    eprint = {http://www.sciencemag.org/content/262/5139/1525.full.pdf},
    file = {:goldsteinEngelhardtKambFrolichScience1993DInSARIceSheetMonitoring.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {SAR Processing, Interferometry, SAR interferometry, differential SAR interferometry, DInSAR, Displacement, Surface Displacement, glaciology; hydrological techniques;radar applications;radar imaging;remote sensing by radar;spaceborne radar;synthetic aperture radar; Greenland;SAR method;flow;geophysical measurement technique;glaciology;hydrology;ice sheet motion},
    owner = {ofrey},
    pdf = {../../../docs/goldsteinEngelhardtKambFrolichScience1993DInSARIceSheetMonitoring.pdf},
    url = {http://www.sciencemag.org/content/262/5139/1525.abstract},
    
    }
    


  3. Charles V. Jakowatz and Daniel E. Wahl. Eigenvector method for maximum-likelihood estimation of phase errors in synthetic-aperture-radar imagery. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 10(12):2539-2546, 1993. Keyword(s): SAR Processing, Autofocus, Motion Compensation, MoComp, Residual Motion Errors, Airborne SAR, Phase Gradient Autofocus, PGA, Eigenvector Method, Maximum Likelihood Estimation.
    @Article{JakowatzJrWahl1993:Autofocus,
    Title = {Eigenvector method for maximum-likelihood estimation of phase errors in synthetic-aperture-radar imagery},
    Author = {Charles V. Jakowatz and Daniel E. Wahl},
    Number = {12},
    Pages = {2539--2546},
    Url = {http://www.opticsinfobase.org/DirectPDFAccess/6D44B5BB-BDB9-137E-C75A13B9AF01574B_59130.pdf},
    Volume = {10},
    Year = {1993},
    Journal = {J. Opt. Soc. Am. A},
    Keywords = {SAR Processing, Autofocus, Motion Compensation, MoComp, Residual Motion Errors, Airborne SAR, Phase Gradient Autofocus, PGA, Eigenvector Method, Maximum Likelihood Estimation},
    Owner = {ofrey},
    Pdf = {../../../docs/JakowatzJrWahl1993.pdf},
    Publisher = {OSA} 
    }
    


  4. M. D. Macleod. Fast Interpolation by FFT with Greatly Increased Accuracy. Electronics Letters, 29(13):1200-1201, June 1993. Keyword(s): Interpolation, Interpolation by FFT, Fast Fourier Transforms, FFT, Nyquist limit, RMS error, Sampling Rate Conversion, Upsampling, Error Analysis, Block Edges.
    Abstract: When the FFT (or DCT or DST) is used for fast interpolation, errors arise due to the assumed periodicity in the data, and the resulting implied discontinuities of the function and its derivatives at the block edges. By adding simple functions before interpolation and subtracting them again afterwards, these interpolation errors can be removed.

    @Article{macleod93:Interpolation,
    Title = {{Fast Interpolation by FFT with Greatly Increased Accuracy}},
    Author = {M. D. Macleod},
    Month = jun,
    Number = {13},
    Pages = {1200-1201},
    Url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel1/2220/5737/00219267.pdf},
    Volume = {29},
    Year = {1993},
    Abstract = {When the FFT (or DCT or DST) is used for fast interpolation, errors arise due to the assumed periodicity in the data, and the resulting implied discontinuities of the function and its derivatives at the block edges. By adding simple functions before interpolation and subtracting them again afterwards, these interpolation errors can be removed.},
    Journal = {Electronics Letters},
    Keywords = {Interpolation, Interpolation by FFT, Fast Fourier Transforms, FFT, Nyquist limit, RMS error, Sampling Rate Conversion, Upsampling, Error Analysis, Block Edges},
    Pdf = {../../../docs/macleod93.pdf} 
    }
    


  5. S.N. Madsen, H.A. Zebker, and J. Martin. Topographic mapping using radar interferometry: processing techniques. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 31(1):246-256, January 1993. Keyword(s): SAR Processing, InSAR, Interferometry, Interferometric SAR, Airborne SAR, cartography, geophysical techniques, remote sensing by radar, topography (Earth), NASA, JPL, TOPSAR, SAR, height maps, land surface, mapping, measurement, motion compensation, phase ambiguity, processing algorithm, radar interferometry, technique, terrain, three-dimensional target location algorithm, topographic radar mapper, topography.
    Abstract: A new processing algorithm for the NASA JPL TOPSAR topographic radar mapper is described. It incorporates extensive motion compensation features as well as accurate three-dimensional target location algorithm. The processor applies an algorithm to resolving the absolute phase ambiguity. This allows rectified height maps to be generated without any use of ground reference points. The processor was tested using data acquired with extreme aircraft motion so that performance could be evaluated under adverse conditions. The topographic maps generated by the radar were compared to digital elevation models (DEMs) derived using conventional optical stereo techniques. In one region, the RMS elevation deviations measured were less than the specified DEM accuracy, and, in the region covered by the more accurate DEM, errors varied from 2.2 m RMS in relatively flat terrain up to 5.0 m in mountainous area. The RMS difference between radar and DEM elevation over the 6.5-km by 22-km area covered by the more accurate DEM was 3.6 m

    @Article{madsenZebkerMartin1993:InSAR,
    author = {Madsen, S.N. and Zebker, H.A. and Martin, J.},
    journal = {IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing},
    title = {Topographic mapping using radar interferometry: processing techniques},
    year = {1993},
    issn = {0196-2892},
    month = {Jan},
    number = {1},
    pages = {246-256},
    volume = {31},
    abstract = {A new processing algorithm for the NASA JPL TOPSAR topographic radar mapper is described. It incorporates extensive motion compensation features as well as accurate three-dimensional target location algorithm. The processor applies an algorithm to resolving the absolute phase ambiguity. This allows rectified height maps to be generated without any use of ground reference points. The processor was tested using data acquired with extreme aircraft motion so that performance could be evaluated under adverse conditions. The topographic maps generated by the radar were compared to digital elevation models (DEMs) derived using conventional optical stereo techniques. In one region, the RMS elevation deviations measured were less than the specified DEM accuracy, and, in the region covered by the more accurate DEM, errors varied from 2.2 m RMS in relatively flat terrain up to 5.0 m in mountainous area. The RMS difference between radar and DEM elevation over the 6.5-km by 22-km area covered by the more accurate DEM was 3.6 m},
    doi = {10.1109/36.210464},
    keywords = {SAR Processing, InSAR, Interferometry, Interferometric SAR, Airborne SAR, cartography, geophysical techniques, remote sensing by radar, topography (Earth), NASA, JPL, TOPSAR, SAR, height maps, land surface, mapping, measurement, motion compensation, phase ambiguity, processing algorithm, radar interferometry, technique, terrain, three-dimensional target location algorithm, topographic radar mapper, topography},
    owner = {ofrey},
    pdf = {../../../docs/madsenZebkerMartin1993.pdf},
    url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=210464&isnumber=5461},
    
    }
    


  6. Didier Massonnet and Thierry Rabaute. Radar interferometry: limits and potential. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 31(2):455-464, 1993. Keyword(s): SAR Processing, electromagnetic wave interferometry, geophysical techniques, image processing, remote sensing by radar, topography (Earth), accuracy, differential interferometry, digital terrain modeling, height restitution, image pair, image processing, orbital geometry, phase ambiguity, radar interferometry, topography, Geometrical optics, Instruments, Laser radar, Optical interferometry, Optical sensors, Radar antennas, Radar imaging, Radar interferometry, Spaceborne radar, Synthetic aperture radar.
    Abstract: The contribution of radar interferometry to the field of digital terrain modeling is important because this technique offers specific features which optical instruments cannot attain. However, the complexity of the height restitution and the accuracy of the result strongly depend on the orbital geometry at the time of the data takes. The present study aims at assessing the potential of a given image pair with regard to interferometry and at automatically reducing the phase ambiguity intrinsic to such processing. Particular applications of differential interferometry are also discussed in order to estimate their requirements and prepare future experiments

    @Article{massonnetRabauteTGRS1993InSAROverview,
    author = {Massonnet, Didier and Rabaute, Thierry},
    title = {Radar interferometry: limits and potential},
    journal = {IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.},
    year = {1993},
    volume = {31},
    number = {2},
    pages = {455-464},
    issn = {0196-2892},
    abstract = {The contribution of radar interferometry to the field of digital terrain modeling is important because this technique offers specific features which optical instruments cannot attain. However, the complexity of the height restitution and the accuracy of the result strongly depend on the orbital geometry at the time of the data takes. The present study aims at assessing the potential of a given image pair with regard to interferometry and at automatically reducing the phase ambiguity intrinsic to such processing. Particular applications of differential interferometry are also discussed in order to estimate their requirements and prepare future experiments},
    doi = {10.1109/36.214922},
    file = {:massonnetRabauteTGRS1993InSAROverview.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {SAR Processing, electromagnetic wave interferometry;geophysical techniques;image processing; remote sensing by radar;topography (Earth);accuracy;differential interferometry;digital terrain modeling; height restitution;image pair;image processing;orbital geometry;phase ambiguity;radar interferometry;topography;Geometrical optics; Instruments;Laser radar;Optical interferometry;Optical sensors;Radar antennas;Radar imaging;Radar interferometry;Spaceborne radar; Synthetic aperture radar},
    pdf = {../../../docs/massonnetRabauteTGRS1993InSAROverview.pdf},
    
    }
    


  7. Didier Massonnet, Marc Rossi, Cesar Carmona, Frederic Adragna, Gilles Peltzer, Kurt Feigl, and Thierry Rabaute. The displacement field of the Landers earthquake mapped by radar interferometry. Nature, 364(6433):138-142, July 1993. Keyword(s): SAR Processing, Interferometry, SAR interferometry, differential SAR interferometry, DInSAR, Deformation Mapping, Deformation Monitoring, ERS-1, Displacement, Surface Displacement, Surface Deformation, Spaceborne SAR, C-band, Earthquake, Landers earthquake, Fault Slip.
    Abstract: Geodetic data, obtained by ground- or space-based techniques, can be used to infer the distribution of slip on a fault that has ruptured in an earthquake. Although most geodetic techniques require a surveyed network to be in place before the earthquake, satellite images, when collected at regular intervals, can capture co-seismic displacements without advance knowledge of the earthquake's location. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry, first introduced in 1974 for topographic mapping can also be used to detect changes in the ground surface, by removing the signal from the topography. Here we use SAR interferometry to capture the movements produced by the 1992 earthquake in Landers, California1. We construct an interferogram by combining topographic information with SAR images obtained by the ERS-1 satellite before and after the earthquake. The observed changes in range from the ground surface to the satellite agree well with the slip measured in the field, with the displacements measured by surveying, and with the results of an elastic dislocation model. As a geodetic tool, the SAR interferogram provides a denser spatial sampling (100 m per pixel) than surveying methods and a better precision (~3 cm) than previous space imaging techniques

    @Article{massonnetRossiCarmonaAdragnaPeltzerFeiglRabauteNatureLett1993LandersDINSAR,
    author = {Massonnet, Didier and Rossi, Marc and Carmona, Cesar and Adragna, Frederic and Peltzer, Gilles and Feigl, Kurt and Rabaute, Thierry},
    journal = {Nature},
    title = {The displacement field of the {Landers} earthquake mapped by radar interferometry},
    year = {1993},
    month = jul,
    number = {6433},
    pages = {138-142},
    volume = {364},
    abstract = {Geodetic data, obtained by ground- or space-based techniques, can be used to infer the distribution of slip on a fault that has ruptured in an earthquake. Although most geodetic techniques require a surveyed network to be in place before the earthquake, satellite images, when collected at regular intervals, can capture co-seismic displacements without advance knowledge of the earthquake's location. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry, first introduced in 1974 for topographic mapping can also be used to detect changes in the ground surface, by removing the signal from the topography. Here we use SAR interferometry to capture the movements produced by the 1992 earthquake in Landers, California1. We construct an interferogram by combining topographic information with SAR images obtained by the ERS-1 satellite before and after the earthquake. The observed changes in range from the ground surface to the satellite agree well with the slip measured in the field, with the displacements measured by surveying, and with the results of an elastic dislocation model. As a geodetic tool, the SAR interferogram provides a denser spatial sampling (100 m per pixel) than surveying methods and a better precision (~3 cm) than previous space imaging techniques},
    doi = {10.1038/364138a0},
    file = {:massonnetRossiCarmonaAdragnaPeltzerFeiglRabauteNatureLett1993LandersDINSAR.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {SAR Processing, Interferometry, SAR interferometry, differential SAR interferometry, DInSAR, Deformation Mapping, Deformation Monitoring, ERS-1, Displacement, Surface Displacement, Surface Deformation, Spaceborne SAR, C-band, Earthquake, Landers earthquake, Fault Slip},
    owner = {ofrey},
    pdf = {../../../docs/massonnetRossiCarmonaAdragnaPeltzerFeiglRabauteNatureLett1993LandersDINSAR.pdf},
    url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/364138a0},
    
    }
    


  8. Andrew S. Milman. SAR Imaging by Omega-K Migration. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 14(10):1965-1979, 1993. Keyword(s): SAR Processing, Wavenumber Domain Algorithm, omega-k, Range Migration Algorithm, Stolt Mapping, Stationary Phase Method.
    Abstract: A new method of processing synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data was originally developed by a group of geophysicists, who use seismic migration to generate seismic images of the Earth. Called here omega-k migration, it has several advantages over more traditional methods of forming SAR images; they all arise because this method provides a mathematically exact solution to the imaging problem, in that the emitted waves are not being treated as plane waves. This paper discusses how migration processing can be applied to chirped radars; how it applies to spotlight data; and how to correct for non-uniform motions of the SAR platform.

    @Article{milman93:omegak,
    Title = {{SAR Imaging by Omega-K Migration}},
    Author = {Andrew S. Milman},
    Number = {10},
    Pages = {1965-1979},
    Volume = {14},
    Year = {1993},
    Abstract = {A new method of processing synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data was originally developed by a group of geophysicists, who use seismic migration to generate seismic images of the Earth. Called here omega-k migration, it has several advantages over more traditional methods of forming SAR images; they all arise because this method provides a mathematically exact solution to the imaging problem, in that the emitted waves are not being treated as plane waves. This paper discusses how migration processing can be applied to chirped radars; how it applies to spotlight data; and how to correct for non-uniform motions of the SAR platform.},
    Journal = {International Journal of Remote Sensing},
    Keywords = {SAR Processing, Wavenumber Domain Algorithm, omega-k, Range Migration Algorithm, Stolt Mapping, Stationary Phase Method},
    Pdf = {../../../docs/milman93.pdf} 
    }
    


  9. Claudio Prati and Fabio Rocca. Improving slant-range resolution with multiple SAR surveys. IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 29(1):135-143, January 1993. Keyword(s): aerospace instrumentation, microwave imaging, radar systems, synthetic aperture radar, SAR interferometry, across-track resolution, data rate constraints, microwave imaging, multiple SAR surveys, multiple surveys, off-nadir angles, slant-range resolution, spaceborne synthetic aperture radar, spaceborne trajectories, Antenna measurements, Azimuth, Extraterrestrial measurements, Image resolution, Pulse measurements, Pulse modulation, Radar antennas, Signal resolution, Spaceborne radar, Synthetic aperture radar.
    Abstract: Across-track resolution of a spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system is limited by power and data rate constraints. The authors derive and discuss a new technique for increasing the across-track resolution of objects that do not change with time, using multiple surveys of the same area from different off-nadir angles. Precise information on the spaceborne trajectories are not requested since they can be derived from SAR interferometry. Simulated data show that theoretical derivations are in good agreement with practice

    @Article{pratiRoccaTAES1993WavenumberShiftImprovedSlantRange,
    author = {Prati, Claudio and Rocca, Fabio},
    title = {Improving slant-range resolution with multiple {SAR} surveys},
    journal = {IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems},
    year = {1993},
    volume = {29},
    number = {1},
    pages = {135-143},
    month = {Jan},
    issn = {0018-9251},
    abstract = {Across-track resolution of a spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system is limited by power and data rate constraints. The authors derive and discuss a new technique for increasing the across-track resolution of objects that do not change with time, using multiple surveys of the same area from different off-nadir angles. Precise information on the spaceborne trajectories are not requested since they can be derived from SAR interferometry. Simulated data show that theoretical derivations are in good agreement with practice},
    doi = {10.1109/7.249119},
    file = {:pratiRoccaTAES1993WavenumberShiftImprovedSlantRange.pdf:PDF},
    keywords = {aerospace instrumentation;microwave imaging;radar systems;synthetic aperture radar;SAR interferometry;across-track resolution;data rate constraints;microwave imaging;multiple SAR surveys;multiple surveys;off-nadir angles;slant-range resolution;spaceborne synthetic aperture radar;spaceborne trajectories;Antenna measurements;Azimuth;Extraterrestrial measurements;Image resolution;Pulse measurements;Pulse modulation;Radar antennas;Signal resolution;Spaceborne radar;Synthetic aperture radar},
    pdf = {../../../docs/pratiRoccaTAES1993WavenumberShiftImprovedSlantRange.pdf},
    
    }
    


  10. Harish Subbaram and Ken Abend. Interference suppression via orthogonal projections: a performance analysis. Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on, 41(9):1187-1194, 1993. Keyword(s): SAR Processsing, RFI Suppression, orthogonal projections, subspace separation, principle component analysis, antenna phased arrays, antenna radiation patterns, array signal processing, interference suppression, jamming, adaptive jammer suppression, additive noise, average residual interference, computer simulations, interference suppression, jammer plus noise power, jammer snapshots, mainbeam, performance analysis, performance parameters, performance predictions, phased array antennas, sample matrix inversion algorithm, sidelobe levels, vector spaces, weight vector.
    Abstract: Several recent studies indicate the promise of subspace separation principles when applied to adaptive jammer suppression in phased arrayantennas. This paper theoretically analyzes the performance of a subspace separation technique based on orthogonal projections (OP) foradaptively suppressing interference in phased arrays; the theoretical performance predictions are validated using computer simulations. Thisanalysis holds for the case when it is possible to differentiate between the vector spaces spanned by jammers and additive noise. The performance parameters used are (a) the average residual interference (jammer plusnoise) power at the output of the adapted array as a function of the number of jammer snapshots used for calculating the weight vector, and (b) the similarity of the adapted array pattern to the design pattern away from the jammer locations. The performance of the OP-based subspace separation technique is compared with the sample matrix inversion (SMI) algorithm. It is shown that the weight vector calculated using OP converges more quickly to the optimal solution (infinite number of interference snapshots) than the SMI weight vector. Further, in contrast to the SMI adapted pattern, which exhibits large sidelobe levels away from the jammer locations, the OP adapted pattern closely follows the design pattern both in the main beam and in the sidelobe region away from the jammer locations.

    @Article{subbaramAbend93:RFI,
    Title = {Interference suppression via orthogonal projections: a performance analysis},
    Author = {Subbaram, Harish and Abend, Ken},
    Number = {9},
    Pages = {1187--1194},
    Url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel4/8/6341/00247744.pdf},
    Volume = {41},
    Year = {1993},
    Abstract = {Several recent studies indicate the promise of subspace separation principles when applied to adaptive jammer suppression in phased arrayantennas. This paper theoretically analyzes the performance of a subspace separation technique based on orthogonal projections (OP) foradaptively suppressing interference in phased arrays; the theoretical performance predictions are validated using computer simulations. Thisanalysis holds for the case when it is possible to differentiate between the vector spaces spanned by jammers and additive noise. The performance parameters used are (a) the average residual interference (jammer plusnoise) power at the output of the adapted array as a function of the number of jammer snapshots used for calculating the weight vector, and (b) the similarity of the adapted array pattern to the design pattern away from the jammer locations. The performance of the OP-based subspace separation technique is compared with the sample matrix inversion (SMI) algorithm. It is shown that the weight vector calculated using OP converges more quickly to the optimal solution (infinite number of interference snapshots) than the SMI weight vector. Further, in contrast to the SMI adapted pattern, which exhibits large sidelobe levels away from the jammer locations, the OP adapted pattern closely follows the design pattern both in the main beam and in the sidelobe region away from the jammer locations.},
    Journal = {Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on},
    Keywords = {SAR Processsing, RFI Suppression, orthogonal projections, subspace separation, principle component analysis, antenna phased arrays, antenna radiation patterns, array signal processing, interference suppression, jamming, adaptive jammer suppression, additive noise, average residual interference, computer simulations, interference suppression, jammer plus noise power, jammer snapshots, mainbeam, performance analysis, performance parameters, performance predictions, phased array antennas, sample matrix inversion algorithm, sidelobe levels, vector spaces, weight vector},
    Owner = {ofrey},
    Pdf = {../../../docs/subbaramAbend93.pdf} 
    }
    


  11. Jakob van Zyl, Bruce D. Chapman, Pascale Dubois, and Jiancheng Shi. The effect of topography on SAR calibration. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 31(5):1036-1043, September 1993. Keyword(s): SAR Processing, Radiometric Normalization, AIRSAR, Austria, Austrian Alps, C-band ERS-1 spaceborne radar system, NASA/JPL airborne SAR system, Oetztal, SAR calibration, Tombstone, United States, airborne systems, antenna pattern removal, calibration errors, digital elevation model, high relief area, local slopes, moderate relief area, radiometric corrections, scattering area removal, spaceborne SAR, synthetic aperture radar, topographic variations, calibration, geophysical techniques, remote sensing by radar, synthetic aperture radar, topography (Earth).
    Abstract: During normal synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processing, a flat Earth is assumed when performing radiometric corrections such as antenna pattern and scattering area removal. The authors examine the effects of topographic variations on these corrections. Local slopes will cause the actual scattering area to be different from that calculated using the flat Earth assumption. It is shown that this effect may easily cause calibration errors larger than a decibel. Ignoring the topography during antenna pattern removal may also introduce errors of several decibels in the case of airborne systems. The effect of topography on antenna pattern removal is expected to be negligible for spaceborne SARs. The authors show how these effects can be taken into account if a digital elevation model is available for the imaged area. The errors are quantified for two different types of terrain, a moderate relief area near Tombstone, AZ, and a high relief area near Oetztal in the Austrian Alps. The authors show errors for two well-known radar systems, the C-band ERS-1 spaceborne radar system and the three frequency NASA/JPL airborne SAR system (AIRSAR)

    @Article{vanZylChapmanDuboisShi1993:RadiometricNormalization,
    Title = {The effect of topography on {SAR} calibration},
    Author = {van Zyl, Jakob and Chapman, Bruce D. and Dubois, Pascale and Shi, Jiancheng},
    Doi = {10.1109/36.263774},
    ISSN = {0196-2892},
    Month = sep,
    Number = {5},
    Pages = {1036-1043},
    Url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=263774},
    Volume = {31},
    Year = {1993},
    Abstract = {During normal synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processing, a flat Earth is assumed when performing radiometric corrections such as antenna pattern and scattering area removal. The authors examine the effects of topographic variations on these corrections. Local slopes will cause the actual scattering area to be different from that calculated using the flat Earth assumption. It is shown that this effect may easily cause calibration errors larger than a decibel. Ignoring the topography during antenna pattern removal may also introduce errors of several decibels in the case of airborne systems. The effect of topography on antenna pattern removal is expected to be negligible for spaceborne SARs. The authors show how these effects can be taken into account if a digital elevation model is available for the imaged area. The errors are quantified for two different types of terrain, a moderate relief area near Tombstone, AZ, and a high relief area near Oetztal in the Austrian Alps. The authors show errors for two well-known radar systems, the C-band ERS-1 spaceborne radar system and the three frequency NASA/JPL airborne SAR system (AIRSAR)},
    Journal = {IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.},
    Keywords = {SAR Processing, Radiometric Normalization, AIRSAR;Austria;Austrian Alps;C-band ERS-1 spaceborne radar system;NASA/JPL airborne SAR system;Oetztal;SAR calibration;Tombstone;United States;airborne systems;antenna pattern removal;calibration errors;digital elevation model;high relief area;local slopes;moderate relief area;radiometric corrections;scattering area removal;spaceborne SAR;synthetic aperture radar;topographic variations;calibration;geophysical techniques;remote sensing by radar;synthetic aperture radar;topography (Earth)},
    Owner = {ofrey},
    Pdf = {../../../docs/vanZylChapmanDuboisShi1993.pdf} 
    }
    


Conference articles

  1. Pierre Duhamel, Mohsen Montazeri, and Katia Hilal. Classical adaptive algorithms (LMS, RLS, CMA, decision directed)seen as recursive structures. In Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 1993. ICASSP-93., 1993 IEEE International Conference on, volume 3, pages 496-499, 1993. Keyword(s): RFI Suppression, adaptive filters, computational complexity, correlation theory, least squares approximations, recursive functions, FIR algorithm, adaptive algorithms, block algorithms, constant modulus algorithm, correlation coefficients, decision-directed algorithm, equilibrium states, finite impulse response, least mean square, LMS, recursive least squares, RLS, recursive structures.
    Abstract: Any finite impulse response (FIR) adaptive algorithm has aninherent recursive structure, since the error at time n is fedback into the algorithm to provide the next tap vector. The authors explicitly provide this recursive structure and show that a least meansquare (LMS) adaptive algorithm can be expressed in terms of a recursivefilter, the coefficients of this recurrence being the correlation coefficients of the input signal. Corresponding structures are proposed for the recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm, the constant modulus algorithm (CMA), and the decision-directed (DD) algorithm. These schemes provide block algorithms that are equivalent to the corresponding sample-by-sample algorithm, while requiring fewer computations. The corresponding structures are easily used for studying equilibrium states of the adaptive algorithms.

    @InProceedings{duhamelMontazeriHilal93:LMS,
    Title = {Classical adaptive algorithms (LMS, RLS, CMA, decision directed)seen as recursive structures},
    Author = {Duhamel, Pierre and Montazeri, Mohsen and Hilal, Katia},
    Booktitle = {Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 1993. ICASSP-93., 1993 IEEE International Conference on},
    Pages = {496--499},
    Url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel2/1051/7686/00319543.pdf},
    Volume = {3},
    Year = {1993},
    Abstract = {Any finite impulse response (FIR) adaptive algorithm has aninherent recursive structure, since the error at time n is fedback into the algorithm to provide the next tap vector. The authors explicitly provide this recursive structure and show that a least meansquare (LMS) adaptive algorithm can be expressed in terms of a recursivefilter, the coefficients of this recurrence being the correlation coefficients of the input signal. Corresponding structures are proposed for the recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm, the constant modulus algorithm (CMA), and the decision-directed (DD) algorithm. These schemes provide block algorithms that are equivalent to the corresponding sample-by-sample algorithm, while requiring fewer computations. The corresponding structures are easily used for studying equilibrium states of the adaptive algorithms.},
    Keywords = {RFI Suppression, adaptive filters, computational complexity, correlation theory, least squares approximations, recursive functions, FIR algorithm, adaptive algorithms, block algorithms, constant modulus algorithm, correlation coefficients, decision-directed algorithm, equilibrium states, finite impulse response, least mean square, LMS, recursive least squares, RLS, recursive structures},
    Owner = {ofrey},
    Pdf = {../../../docs/duhamelMontazeriHilal93.pdf} 
    }
    


  2. A. Martinez and Jean L. Marchand. Implementation and Quality Analysis of a CSA SAR Processor. In IGARSS '93, International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, volume 3, pages 1179-1181, August 1993. Keyword(s): SAR Processing, Chirp Scaling Algorithm, Quality Assessment, Quality Measures, ISLR, PSLR.
    Abstract: Recently, a new SAR processing algorithm has been proposed. The basis of the method is to equalize the range migration trajectories of the whole image with respect to a reference range. During azimuth compression, the range migration at the reference range can be exactly corrected, and its effect is extended to all ranges. In order to assess the quality of the resulting image, a number of quality criteria are evaluated. They include classical measurements, such as spatial resolution, ISLR and PSLR, as well as refined ones for better analysis of the pulse shape. The stability and variation of the quality criteria when changing several key input parameters (Doppler centroid, FM rate acid reference range) are also studied. The tests have been performed using real ERS-1 raw data. The selected scene is the Flevoland site where three transponders and several corners reflectors are deployed, thus allowing precise quality analysis to be performed.

    @InProceedings{MartMarch93:Quali,
    Title = {{Implementation and Quality Analysis of a CSA SAR Processor}},
    Author = {A. Martinez and Jean L. Marchand},
    Booktitle = {IGARSS '93, International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium},
    Month = Aug,
    Pages = {1179-1181},
    Url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel2/1064/7705/00322126.pdf},
    Volume = {3},
    Year = {1993},
    Abstract = {Recently, a new SAR processing algorithm has been proposed. The basis of the method is to equalize the range migration trajectories of the whole image with respect to a reference range. During azimuth compression, the range migration at the reference range can be exactly corrected, and its effect is extended to all ranges. In order to assess the quality of the resulting image, a number of quality criteria are evaluated. They include classical measurements, such as spatial resolution, ISLR and PSLR, as well as refined ones for better analysis of the pulse shape. The stability and variation of the quality criteria when changing several key input parameters (Doppler centroid, FM rate acid reference range) are also studied. The tests have been performed using real ERS-1 raw data. The selected scene is the Flevoland site where three transponders and several corners reflectors are deployed, thus allowing precise quality analysis to be performed.},
    Keywords = {SAR Processing, Chirp Scaling Algorithm, Quality Assessment, Quality Measures, ISLR, PSLR},
    Pdf = {../../../docs/MartMarch93.pdf} 
    }
    


  3. B.L. Robertson and David C. Munson, Jr.. Motion errors in ISAR imaging of approaching targets. In Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 1993. ICASSP-93., 1993 IEEE International Conference on, volume 5, pages 449-452, April 1993. Keyword(s): ISAR.
    @InProceedings{Robertson1993,
    Title = {Motion errors in ISAR imaging of approaching targets},
    Author = {Robertson, B.L. and {Munson, Jr.}, David C.},
    Booktitle = {Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 1993. ICASSP-93., 1993 IEEE International Conference on},
    Doi = {10.1109/ICASSP.1993.319844},
    Month = apr,
    Pages = {449--452},
    Volume = {5},
    Year = {1993},
    Keywords = {ISAR},
    Owner = {ofrey} 
    }
    


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Please note that access to full text PDF versions of papers is restricted to the Chair of Earth Observation and Remote Sensing, Institute of Environmental Engineering, ETH Zurich.
Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright.

This collection of SAR literature is far from being complete.
It is rather a collection of papers which I store in my literature data base. Hence, the list of publications under PUBLICATIONS OF AUTHOR'S NAME should NOT be mistaken for a complete bibliography of that author.




Last modified: Mon Feb 1 16:39:00 2021
Author: Othmar Frey, Earth Observation and Remote Sensing, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology - ETH Zurich .


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